Biblical Greek – Level 3

Course Description

Welcome to our course designed to equip you with advanced translation skills and the ability to engage in exegesis with confidence. If you are nearing the completion of Greek Level B or have been immersing yourself in Greek studies for more than a year, this course is tailor-made for you.

Prepare to embark on a linguistic adventure as we delve into a selection of passages from the New Testament (NT) and the Septuagint (LXX). With a strong focus on consolidating the grammar and vocabulary covered in Greek Levels A and B, we will introduce you to new grammatical features and expand your lexicon.

You will create your own translations, verse by verse, unraveling the mysteries of vocabulary, grammar, and exegetical nuances. Unlock the secrets of comparison as we guide you through parallel accounts from the gospels, unveiling striking similarities and intriguing differences. With each lesson, you will sharpen your critical thinking skills and uncover profound insights hidden within the Greek passages.

When do our courses start?
We have a few starting dates so you can choose the class that best suits your schedule. Our next class starts on Monday, November 27 at 9:00 AM. If you are interested in one of our classes click on the schedule below to start the registration process.

Select your preferred class time
All times are in GMT+-5
9:00am
Mon, Nov 27
Wed, Nov 29
9:00am
27 Nov 2023 - 27 Jul 2024 Starts at 9:00am | GMT+-5 Weekly, Class duration: 60 min Enroll now
1:00pm
29 Nov 2023 - 29 Jul 2024 Starts at 1:00pm | GMT+-5 Weekly, Class duration: 60 min Enroll now
2:00pm
27 Nov 2023 - 27 Jul 2024 Starts at 2:00pm | GMT+-5 Weekly, Class duration: 60 min Enroll now
6:00pm
27 Nov 2023 - 27 Jul 2024 Starts at 6:00pm | GMT+-5 Weekly, Class duration: 60 min Enroll now
29 Nov 2023 - 29 Jul 2024 Starts at 6:00pm | GMT+-5 Weekly, Class duration: 60 min Enroll now

Syllabus Summary

  1. Revision of Noun-declensions

    We will briefly introduce Mark’s gospel to students. We will read, translate and comment on Mark 1:1-8 (the first half of Mark’s prologue). Then introduce the first-declension masculine nouns in –ας and review noun declensions.

  2. Revision of Verbs: Active Voice

    We will read and translate Mark 1:9-13 (the second half of Mark’s prologue) and review the Active Voice. You will have the opportunity to produce your own translation. We will also study Mark 1:10-11, and Mark 1:12-13, and review the tenses, moods and voices we have studied in Levels A and B. We will explore the first person singular indicative active of λύω and active voice: present, imperfect and future, aorist, and perfect.

  3. Revision of Verbs: Middle and Passive Voice

    The beginning of the Galilean ministry and call to discipleship. In this unit we will read and translate Mark 1:14-20 and review the middle and passive voice. In Mark 1:14-15, we will study the subject and object of κηρύσσων, and the implication of the present imperatives in verse 15. In Mark 1:16-17, we will examine the subject(s) of ἀμφιβάλλοντας and ask what is syntactically ἁλιεῖς? We will also discuss Mark 1:18-20.

  4. Periphrastic Constructions

    The man with an unclean spirit and the healing of Simon’s mother-in-law. We will read, translate, and comment on Mark 1:21-31, and introduce the periphrastic constructions. We explore occasions in these verses when a tense is formed using an auxiliary word (i.e., the verb “to be”) plus a participle (e.g., διδάσκων).

  5. Genitive Absolute Construction and Revision of the Second Aorist

    Preaching in Galilee and the cleansing of a leper. In this unit, we read, translate and comment on Mark 1:32-45, and we will review the second aorist. We will cover verbs with a second aorist, second aorist indicative of βάλλω, βαίνω, γινώσκω, δύνω, and conjugate the second aorist indicative of γίνομαι and ἔρχομαι.

  6. Adjectives in –ησ, –εσ and Revision of Pronouns

    The Word became flesh. You will read, translate and comment on the prologue of John’s gospel (1:1-18). A number of pronouns are found in the text, so we will review the pronouns we have studied in the previous levels. We will also look at the declension of the reflexive pronouns – we haven’t seen their declension in full in the previous two levels.

  7. Revision of Participles

    The birth of Jesus and the visit of the Magi in Matthew 1:18-2:2. We will read and translate Jesus’ birth narrative from the gospel of Matthew. Later, in unit 9 we will read Luke’s account on the birth of Jesus and compare it with that of Matthew.

  8. Attributive and Adverbial Participles; Cognate Object

    We continue with the visit of the Magi in Matthew 2:3-12. We will also continue the revision of participles and introduce the cognate object. We explore the lexicon form of ἐξελεύσεται, cover the cognate object – a verb’s object etymologically related to the stem of the verb which governs it and is used for emphasis as it repeats the idea of the verb.

  9. The Optative Mood

    Jesus’ birth foretold. In this unit we will read Luke’s account on Gabriel’s announcement of the birth of Jesus in Luke 1:26-38. We will then compare the different elements between Luke and Matthew (Matthew 1:26-38). Then study the sixth mood of the verb, the optative.

  10. The Indefinite Relative Pronoun ὅςτισ, ἥτισ, ὅ,τι; Relative Clauses and Indirect Statements

    We will read Luke’s account of the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem in Luke 2:1-7. The text given in this unit is short, but it will allow us to study the substantive clauses, particularly the relative clauses and indirect statements.

  11. Indirect Questions and Fear Clauses

    The angelic revelation to the shepherds. We will cover the angelic revelation to the shepherds in Luke 2:8-20 and study indirect questions and fear clauses. Examples of questions we will answer include: What kind of object is φυλακάς? What is the tense and the lexicon form of ἱστημι? What kind of object is φόβον? We will also explore some of the differences between Matthew’s and Luke’s account of the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem.

  12. Causal and Purpose Clauses

    In this unit we will read the first part of Genesis’ account of the temptation in the garden (Genesis 3:1-13), and we will study the causal and purpose clauses. Purpose can be expressed in different ways in Greek: 1) purpose clauses; 2) infinitive or articular infinitive preceded by the definite article in the genitive case (τοῦ + infinitive); 3) prepositional phrase – εἰς + το + infinitive or προς + το + acc. (= for; aiming at; leading to); 4) participle that expresses purpose – most often the participle will be in future tense.

  13. Revision of Relative Clauses; Indirect Statements; Indirect Questions; Fear Clauses; Causal and Purpose Clauses

    In this unit we will continue reading the Genesis account of the temptation in the garden in Genesis 3:1-24. At the end of this unit, three slides with sentences are given as review of the dependent clauses we have studied in units 10 to 12.

  14. Result Clauses

    Adam and Christ. There is a clear connection between Genesis 3 and Romans 5:12-21, as Paul contrasts Christ’s death with Adam’s sin. We will read Romans 5:12-21, which has become the cornerstone for the formulation of the doctrine of original sin. We will also study the result clauses which express result, term, condition, or agreement.

  15. Principal Parts of ἄγω, λαλῶ, λέγω, ποιῶ

    We will read Exodus 20:1-17, in which God “speaks” directly through the Ten Commandments to Israel on Mount Sinai/Horeb. According to Jewish tradition, all 613 laws found in the Torah are summarized in the Ten Commandments. We will also examine the (minor) differences between the Greek text of Exodus and that of Deuteronomy. The principles of the Ten Commandments are found in the NT. Finally, we will cover the principal parts of four verbs (ἄγω, λαλῶ, λέγω, ποιῶ) at the end of this unit.

  16. Principal Parts of ἀνοίγω, διδάςκω, διώκω, εἰμί, ἔρχομαι, κρύπτω, ὁρῶ

    This week we will read Matthew 5:1-16, the beginning of Jesus’ sermon, which includes the Beatitudes (vv. 3-11). Also, three slides are given with the Beatitudes in Matthew and Luke, so you can compare the text. Finally, we will study the principal parts of seven verbs: ἀνοίγω, διδάσκω, διώκω, εἰμί, ἔρχομαι, κρύπτω, ὁρῶ.

  17. Imperative of εἰμί; Comparative and Superlative Adjectives; Formation of Adverbs

    We will continue reading from the Sermon on the Mount in Matthew 5:17-26. Specifically, Jesus’ teaching on the Law and the prophets, as well as on murder and anger. We will also study the present imperative of εἰμί and introduce the formation of the comparative and superlative adjectives, as well as the formation of adverbs.

  18. Conditional Clauses

    The Sermon on the Mount: teaching about adultery, divorce and oaths. In this unit we will read Jesus’ teaching concerning adultery and lust, divorce and marriage, and oaths in Matthew 5:27-37. We will also study the conditional clauses.

  19. Principal Parts of λαμβάνω; Temporal Clauses

    We will read the story of Jesus’ rescue of an adulterous woman from stoning in John 7:53-8:11. We will also study the temporal clauses in the NT, find the verbs in the imperfect, and you will produce your own translations of Genesis 27:4, Luke 7:1, and Luke 11:1.

  20. Principal Parts of ἀγαπῶ, ἀκούω, δίδωμι

    We will read Matthew 5:38-48 concerning Jesus’ teaching on retaliation and love for enemies. There is also an opportunity to compare Matthew’s and Luke’s accounts. Finally, we will study the principal parts of ἀγαπῶ, ἀκούω and δίδωμι.

  21. Relative Adverbial, Mixed-relative and Relative-comparative Clauses

    Our reading from the Sermon on the Mount continues. Specifically, Jesus’ teaching concerning almsgiving and prayer in Matthew 6:1-8. Almsgiving and prayer (together with fasting described in Matthew 6:16-18) are the most practical requirements for personal piety in mainstream Judaism. Jesus urges a new attitude towards almsgiving and prayer which is to be directed towards God. We also examine the relative adverbial clauses, the mixed-relative clauses, and the relative-comparative clauses.

  22. Reading the ‘Short’ and ‘Long’ Greek of Tobit 2:1-5

    Last week we read Matthew’s account of Jesus’ teaching concerning piety and two of its practical requirements, i.e., almsgiving and prayer (Matthew 6:1-8). One of the main themes of the book of Tobit is that of piety. Tobit, the principal character of the story, is a model of Jewish piety. Among his pious acts is offering food to the poor (Tobit 1:8, 17; 2:2) and burying the dead bodies of his kinsmen who were thrown behind the wall of Nineveh without proper burial (Tobit 1:16, 18-19). Despite his pious deeds, Tobit (like Job) suffers misfortunes. One of his misfortunes is that he is blinded. In units 22 and 23 we will read the story of Tobit’s blindness after burying the dead body of a kinsman (Tobit 2:1-10).

  23. Reading the ‘Short’ and ‘Long’ Greek of Tobit 2:6-10

    We will continue reading how Tobit buried the dead body of his kinsman and how he was blinded. In particular, we will translate and compare the “Short” (BA) and “Long” (S) Greek text of Tobit 2:6-10 (10 verses in total) and address the problem of piety, which is directly related to the question of theodicy i.e., how could God allow something like this happen to a pious person?

  24. Numerals; Principal Parts of βλέπω, γινώςκω, πάςχω, ςώζω

    Now, we will read and translate Mark 5:25-34 where Jesus heals a woman who suffered from a flow of blood for twelve years, which follows the exorcism at Gerasa. It is combined with the healing of Jairus’ daughter – this is typical to Mark who is fond of this kind of “sandwich arrangement” (i.e., one story serves an interlude within the other. The two stories are also linked by the theme of faith, cf. Mark 5:34 and 5:36). Jesus’ healing of the bleeding woman is also found in Matthew 9:20-22 and Luke 8:43-48. We will also study the numerals and the principal parts of βλέπω, γινώσκω, πάσχω and σώζω.

  25. Pluperfect Active and Middle/Passive

    In this unit, we will read the exorcism of the Gerasene demoniac in Luke 8:26-39. The same story is also found in Matthew (8:28-34) and Mark (5:1-20) – Matthew’s account is quite abridged, whereas Mark’s account is elaborate. The content of Luke’s story is close to that of Mark’s, indicating a Markan original. We will also introduce the Pluperfect tense both in active and middle/passive voice.

  26. Concessive Clauses

    In this Unit we will read Matthew 12:22-37 where Jesus heals a demoniac who was blind and mute (cf. Mark 3:20-30; Luke 11:14-23). The crowd is amazed but the Pharisees attribute Jesus’ power to the ruler of demons, Beelzebul. We will also study the concessive clauses.

  27. Genitive of Comparison and Partitive Genitive; Principal Parts of αἱρῶ, ἁμαρτάνω, ἀπόλλυμι, τρέχω

    We will read the parable of the prodigal son found only in the gospel of Luke (15:11-32). It is the third, longest, parable in Luke 15 preceded by two shorter ones. The first parable is that of the lost sheep (15:3-7) and the second is the lost coin (15:8-10) – which Jesus’ bases his reply on, directed at the Pharisees who complain that Jesus eats with sinners (Luke 15:1-2). Luke 16 also continues with two more parables, that of the dishonest steward (16:1-13) and the parable of the rich man and Lazarus (16:19-31). The five parables of Luke 15 and 16 form something of a unit as they all share a main theme, that of repentance. The tax collectors and sinners in Israel listen as penitents to the teaching of Jesus, which is resisted by the Pharisees and the scribes.

  28. Principal Parts of ἵςτημι, μένω, πίπτω, πιςτεύω

    In this unit we will read 1 Corinthians 13:1-13, one of the most beautiful texts in the New Testament in which Paul provides a pen-portrait of ἀγάπη, which is the selfless, self-sacrificial, unconditional love (in contrast to the verb φιλέω which suggests the general affection for people of things). The King James Version (KJV) translates ἀγάπη as “charity” (though in 1 John 4:8 ἀγάπη is translated as “love”). This “love-hymn” has poetic qualities both in the level of language and in its structure. It falls into three sections: 1) the futility of gifts without love (vv. 1-3); 2) the quality of love (vv. 4-7); and 3) the eternal worth of love (vv. 8-13).

  29. A Note on the Infinitives of Contract Verbs; Principal Parts of ἀποςτέλλω, γίνομαι, ἔχω, νικάω

    We will read 1 John 4:1-21. In the first six verses (1 John 4:1-6) the author is writing against the false teachers who appear to have created a schism within the Christian community to whom the author is writing (1 John 4:1-6). 1 John 4:7-21 focuses on the primacy of God’s love. Moreover, a note is given regarding the formation of the present infinitives of contract verbs, as well as the principal parts of ἀποστέλλω, γίνομαι, ἔχω, νικάω.

  30. Adjectives in -ύσ, -εῖα, -ύ

    In this unit we will read chapter 10 from the book of Revelation. Revelation (or Apocalypse from ἀποκαλύπτω = “to uncover, reveal”) is a letter written to seven specific churches in the Roman province of Asia (1:4, 11) by a Christian author named John (1:1, 4; 22:8) who was exiled on the island of Patmos at the time of writing. From the 2nd c. CE onwards, the author of the book of Revelation has been identified with the apostle John (though this is still a matter of uncertainty). The most commonly proposed date for the work is late in the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian (81-96 CE). We will also study the class of adjectives ending in -ύς, -εῖα, -ύ which follow the 3-1-3 pattern.

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